The title should be concise and informative. Avoid the use of phrases like ‘influence of’, ‘results of’, ‘studies on’, ‘factors involved’, etc.
Additional Index Words
A list of five to seven key index words or phrases, not already used in the title, follows the byline. Include scientific names (without the name of the authority) and common names of plant species, common names of chemicals used, and physiological and pathological terms. Spell out the same genus, even if it is mentioned more than once. Do not use general words such as “yield” or “growth.”
The abstract should be a concise, self-explanatory, one-paragraph summation of the findings, not to exceed 200 words. Include objectives of the study, the full scientific names (including the name of authority) of organisms (unless already in the title), materials used, effect of major treatments, and major conclusions. Use specific rather than general statements. Include only information presented in the text. The abstract must be consistent with statements in the article.
The introduction (without a heading) should state clearly and concisely why the research was conducted and should include a statement of the problem that justifies doing the research or the hypothesis on which it is based, the findings of (and reference to) earlier work (if applicable) that will be challenged or developed, and the general approach and objectives. The introduction must answer the question: “Why was the work done?”
Materials and Methods
The technical and experimental methods must be described so that the work may be replicable. For materials, give the appropriate technical specifications and quantities and source or method of preparation. Give enough information to indicate how the research was conducted. Well-known tests or procedures should be cited but not described in detail. Describe any controls and statistical procedures. Methods papers should be detailed enough to permit replication of the work. When specific equipment is mentioned in the text, include the name and location (city and state/country) of the manufacturer in parentheses.
Results and Discussion
Present results succinctly in a format consistent with experimental design, with emphasis on main effects and significant interactions. The text and tables should discuss the topics in the same sequence. Interpret results in the discussion.
Report and discuss only those results that are relevant to the study. The discussion should compare and explain any differences in the results within the experiment or those contrary to previous studies. Discuss practical applications of the study and areas for future research. Speculation is encouraged, but must be firmly founded in observation and subjected to tests, and identified apart from the discussion and conclusions. Close the discussion with a brief, pertinent conclusion or interpretive statement; complex conclusions should form a separate section but generally are not necessary if the information is included in the abstract. The section on “Results” can be combined with the section on “Discussion” or they can be separate.
The references section should include only published, significant, and relevant sources accessible through a library or an information system. These include journal articles, books, theses, dissertations, proceedings, bulletins, reports, and published abstracts of papers presented at meetings.
Unpublished work, privileged data, or information received personally should be noted parenthetically in the text [e.g., (“E. D. Brown, unpublished data)” or “(J. B. Smith, personal communication)”]. Papers or manuscripts submitted to a publisher may not be used in a literature citations unless the work has been accepted for publication, in which case the work may be cited as “(In press.)” at the end of the citation.
The Harvard system, with the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication cited in the text, will be used.
List citations alphabetically (letter by letter not word by word) by names of authors and chronologically if duplicated author names appear. Authors are listed first by senior author (last name first followed by initials) and then additional authors (initials first). If a name is followed by “Jr.” or a Roman numeral, the correct form is “Smith, B. F., Jr.” or “Smith, B.F., II.” Do not included professional or honorary titles. All authors of a reference must be listed. If an author is cited more than once, repeat the author’s name – do not substitute an underline for the author’s name. Names of foreign authors retain their native spellings and diacritical marks.
Specific Examples of Citations
Commonly used citations follow. Note punctuation and abbreviation in each case.
Walters, S. Alan. 2001. Influence of rowcovers on reducing WMV incidence in zucchini squash. HortScience 36(3): 439(Abstr.)
Maynard, D. N. (ed.). 2001. Watermelons. characteristics, production, and marketing. ASHS Press, Alexandria, Va.
Wien, H. C. 1997. The cucurbits: cucumber, melon, squash, and pumpkin, p. 345-386. In: H. C. Wien (ed.). The physiology of vegetable crops. CAB International, New York.
Castetter, E. F. and A. T. Erwin. 1927. A systematic study of squashes and pumpkins. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 244.
Paris, H. S. 2000. First two publications by Duchesne of Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae). Taxon 49:305-319.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1997. Agricultural statistics for 1996. U.S. Dept. Agr., Washington, D.C. p. 307.
Thesis or Dissertation
Reeder, J.D. 1981. Nitrogen transformations in revegetated coal spoils. PhD Diss., Dept. of Horticulture, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. (Diss. Abstr. 81-26447).